/Subtype /Form endstream stream stream /Subtype /Form !\ <> Theory-based strategies for managing a common-pool resource (CPR) based on Ostrom (1990) Classes of theory-based intervention Description of intervention Clearly defined boundaries Individuals or households who have rights to withdraw resource units from the CPR must be clearly defined, as must the boundaries of … endobj ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� stream /BBox [0 0 429 644] >> x��K >> endstream 22 0 obj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> !\ x��K >> All these institutions may increase the long-term gains, prolong the life of the resource, and help to escape the tragedy … >> /Subtype /Form >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] /Subtype /Form >> endstream >> endstream /BBox [0 0 429 644] /BBox [0 0 429 644] /Subtype /Form mHSëCcÃ{‹˜$iæðiŒjW7EÔ?&Álj誦tˆQ¹¿if_êO›¶Ú6Nü¦3›§çTrÂÄ;-u;œzǔe…Óp,›¶DQ£W/ˆú($‘Fä9º“|&×i $JÖeAžþ[»Õ¨ï|ÃfG! endobj >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� /Subtype /Form In 2009, she was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for her "analysis of economic … >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> <> endstream endobj /BBox [0 0 429 644] /BBox [0 0 429 644] /Font <> Š. /BBox [0 0 429 644] <> Common-pool resource systems may also be facilities that are constructed for joint use, such as mainframe computers and the Internet. endobj <> Common pool resources (CPRs) are characterized as resources for which the exclusion of users is difficult (referred to as excludability), and the use of such a resource by one user decreases resource benefits for other users (referred to as subtractability). endstream North (1990) applies his theories of the interplay between insti-tutional evolution and political and economic organization to a range of historical examples, including the development of … <> �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> stream No property, as in ocean fisheries or the atmosphere, is the other extreme. !\ endstream >> ... we argue that benefit incorporation affects the very nature of the corporation by creating corporate common pool resources (CPRs) and that the CPR theory … >> endobj >> ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� endobj stream 31 0 obj We show this in a detailed analysis of water market data from the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia.The analytical methods developed in the project accommodate more physically and economically realistic descriptions of the resource and its users than previous work and provide a substantive advance in understanding of … endstream /Subtype /Form �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> 24: Common-Pool Resources and Institutions: Toward a Revised Theory 1323 In summary, evidence from controlled laboratory experiments of small groups of homogeneous appropriators possessing complete information about their endowments and the results of their actions provides strong support that when appropriators are not allowed to communicate, their behavior is consistent with the conventional theory of common-pool resources. endstream !\ <> stream >> 33 0 obj endstream >> x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� /Subtype /Form Some classic examples of common-pool resources are fisheries, forests, underwater basins, and irrigation systems. endstream /BBox [0 0 429 644] endobj endobj endobj /Subtype /Form >> !\ �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> >> /Subtype /Form �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> �^ endstream /BBox [0 0 429 644] x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� Similar incentives and vested interests exist for regulatory agencies. stream /BBox [0 0 429 644] She is the coauthor of two books: Common Waters, Diverging Streams (Resources for the … >> >> /Subtype /Form !\ The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons … The … x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� x��K /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] stream This paper develops a heuristic criterion to identify the costs and benefits of adopting various levels of analysis when constructing theory for common-pool resource management. !\ endstream Common pool resource theory derives from Garrett Hardin (1968), who said that if left to our own devices we would exhaust all the resources available for our consumption. Because no one has property rights or control over such a resource, users of CPRs are frequently assumed to be caught in an inescapable dilemma---overexploitation of the resource… >> 14 0 obj >> stream In this paper we test the applicability of CPR theory to understanding forest governance and outcomes in Indonesia between 1965 and 2012. !\ �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> 36 0 obj Common Pool Resources — Management Lessons Learned and Application to PES Investigation of the factors that enhanceor inhibit management of CPRs has addressed systems across scales from individual forests to entire oceans (Keohane and Ostrom, 1995). /BBox [0 0 429 644] stream New methods have emerged for testing common-pool resource theory in large-scale environmental … !\ /Subtype /Form stream /BBox [0 0 429 644] endstream endstream 40 0 obj >> endobj >> >> Worked examples from semi-arid Tanzania 11 3.1 Erosion prevention/restoration and cooperation in common pool scenarios 11 /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] Each presents a summary set of conditions critical to sustainability of commons … Abstract models of common-pool resource appropriation based on non-cooperative game theory predict that self-interested agents will generally fail to find socially positive equilibria—a phenomenon called the tragedy of the commons. Elinor Ostrom’s research provides a theory of how people can solve the collective-action problem of common-pool resource allocation. endstream stream x��K >> <> stream %PDF-1.4 p޺κ���g�hx�����{6�R+]�x�� /Subtype /Form <> >> <> 19 0 obj x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� p޺κ���g�hx�����{6�R+]�x�� 37 0 obj >> 28 0 obj <> endstream <> /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] To use this theory as a basis for engineering solutions in open computing systems, three related questions must be addressed: 1) Can the theory of self-governing institutions be given a formal <> stream >> ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� !\ endobj rights economics inefficiencies due to common pool resource losses. Imagine if you were a shrimp fisher. 69 0 obj 18 0 obj endstream Both pure public goods and common-pool resources are situations where the market will fail to allocate resources efficiently. stream /Subtype /Form endobj 21 0 obj /Subtype /Form /Subtype /Form endobj >> <> x��K >> ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� stream Common-pool resources often suffer from being overused or becoming congested by use. 7 0 obj !\ x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> endstream endobj This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. >> >> <> This article presents a conceptual framework for theoretical and empirical analysis of the multiplicity of behavioral problems encountered in common-pool resources (CPRs). ... (HTML view) Download PDF for offline viewing. <> With its focus on shared rights, responsibilities and use, common pool resource (CPR) theory has much to offer natural resource policy and planning. x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� 23 0 obj <> <> x��YKs����J����� a0x:�hm٫�m�A'[e� �C^. !\ /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] /Subtype /Form Commons Theory for Marine Resource Management in a Complex World 15 1986; OSTROM 1990; BROMLEY 1992]. 39 0 obj >> x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� stream >> /Rotate 0 endstream >> 13 0 obj ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� endobj As mentioned above, examples of typical common-pool resource systems include lakes, rivers, irrigation systems, groundwater basins, forests, fishery stocks, and grazing areas. >> x��K /Subtype /Form 32 0 obj 35 0 obj stream >> ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� x��K >> x��K They are carefully compar-ative, theoretically informed, and, in contrast to single case-oriented research, they use a relatively large sample of cases to analyze the validity of theoretical insight. endobj endobj endobj <> endobj 24 0 obj Logged in as READCUBE_USER. >> >> !\ <> /Subtype /Form 10 0 obj <> x��K x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� x��K >> �0��?�,��I~��Z�|Ђ�E�%����d3��� Bvb���OF��;�rP�ɘ��_bڮ]!5\ >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� 47 0 obj >> <> 34 0 obj stream >> stream <> x��K endstream x��;�0��ާ��,~ @邀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W����4]ʜ ?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v�lk���'K���>��'y��L��[��W��&� /BBox [0 0 429 644] stream There are a number of resources that fall into the common-pool category, including: 1. endstream If time, space and interest permit during the games evening, we will run a short common pool simulation recently produced using an agent-based modelling and simulation platform. endobj >> 20 0 obj ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� endobj >> endstream >> 12 0 obj >> ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� /BBox [0 0 429 644] ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� <> Game Theory, Common Pool Resources (CPR) and, Common Pool Institutions (CPI) 1 8 2.1 Commonly used games for depicting CPR problems 8 2.2 Institutional solutions to CPR problems 8 3. 9 0 obj stream ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� /CropBox [73 75 502 719] stream >> "Common-pool Resources (CPRs) are natural or human-made resources where one person's use subtracts from another's use and where it is often necessary, but difficult and costly, to exclude other users outside the group from using the resource.. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. endobj /BBox [0 0 429 644] ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� >> Unlike pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable. endstream <> /Subtype /Form endobj /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] <> stream /Subtype /Form Common-pool resources are susceptible to overuse and are thus >> x��A /Subtype /Form x��K >> >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] 27 0 obj Common pool resource dilemma games: An overview ... Gamer theory has, of course, taken an interest in CPRs. ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� 1 0 obj endobj ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� You need to fish and sell your catch to sustain your family. /Subtype /Form <> /BBox [0 0 429 644] 42 0 obj endstream <> >> In economics, a common-pool resource is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system, whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. 41 0 obj 38 0 obj /Subtype /Form !\ This article presents a conceptual framework for theoretical and empirical analysis of the multiplicity of behavioral problems encountered in common-pool resources (CPRs). <> Let’s say that there are 10,000 shrimp in the small … /Subtype /Form 6 0 obj x��K x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� /BBox [0 0 450 630] endobj 45 0 obj endobj 15 0 obj x��A endstream <> stream !\ endstream Abstract: While Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory has been widely applied to forestry, there are few examples of using the theory to study largescale governance. endobj In between lies common property, where the rights to exploit a resource are held by persons in common with others. endstream <> endobj endobj 29 0 obj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> stream <> /BBox [0 0 429 644] >> endstream >> endobj principles for common-pool resource management in the lower Mekong basin social-ecological system Sergio Villamayor-Tomas 1, Mikayel Avagyan 1, Marit Firlus 1, Georg Helbing 1 and Margarita Kabakova 1 ABSTRACT. 2. stream >> stream x��K /Subtype /Form It is largely due to the fact that such resources usually possess a primary resource, or stock variable, as well as smaller units that can be extracted and used, or the flow variable of the resource. >> /BBox [0 0 450 630] endobj The majority of the CPR research to date has been in the areas of fisheries, forests, grazing systems, wildlife, water resources, irrigation systems, agriculture, l… <> Elinor Ostrom shared the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2009 for her lifetime of scholarly work investigating how communities succeed or fail at managing common pool (finite) resources such as grazing land, forests and irrigation waters. efforts to manage and govern common-pool resources. ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� Ch. Private property … /Subtype /Form >> stream �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> /Subtype /Form /Subtype /Form >> >> Common property and common-pool resources Exclusive possession (freehold) is one extreme on a continuum of property rights. endstream >> !\ >> >> Access is free and open to all. >> >> endobj endobj /BBox [0 0 450 630] >> stream x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� >> endstream <> endobj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> endobj <> stream endobj <> /BBox [0 0 429 644] x��K /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] 16 0 obj >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] stream >> x��K �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> Forests, irrigation systems, fisheries, groundwater basins, grazing lands, and the air we breathe are all examples of common-pool resources (CPRs). )ÖP Yƒ¸Ñ¿Ûºoêal¾ïË_dÓæÖÃñļc{ ‘´+7}ßp`NûíëáýpÄ0¤5ž¹ Common CPR examples include fisheries, forests, irrigation … endstream >> stream /Subtype /Form x��;�0��ާ��,~ @邀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W����4]ʜ ?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v�lk���'K���>��'y��L��[��W��&� stream endobj >> /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] x��K Theory to Practice Edella Schlager is a professor in the School of Government and Public Policy at the University of Arizona. public goods; game theory; local prosociality; common-pool resources; collective action; As the world becomes more interconnected, we increasingly are faced with problems of the commons and their governance (1 ⇓ –3).Individuals and nations withdraw water, fish, and other resources from a finite … ... we argue that benefit incorporation affects the very nature of the corporation by creating corporate common pool resources (CPRs) and that the CPR theory … �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> endstream x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� /Subtype /Form x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� /Subtype /Form The Firm and Common Pool Resource Theory: Understanding the Rise of Benefit Corporations. This framework is used to specify more clearly the strategic content of CPR dilemmas and to show their interaction. /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] endobj ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� 5 0 obj x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� !\ �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> stream /BBox [0 0 429 644] endobj stream !\ 2 0 obj x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� /BBox [0 0 429 644] >> >> >> stream /Subtype /Form endstream >> 25 0 obj endobj Fisheries 2. <> 30 0 obj 4 0 obj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> Pastures 3. Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom (née Awan; August 7, 1933 – June 12, 2012) was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy. >> /BBox [0 0 429 644] Common-pool resource, a resource made available to all by consumption and to which access can be limited only at high cost. endstream >> >> x��K Irrigation systems >> stream endstream ... View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. >> !\ Open-access is the absence of well-defined property rights. >> >> /Subtype /Form endobj /Subtype /Form Common pool resource governance theory (developed by Ostrom and colleagues; e.g., Ostrom, 1990) distills eight design principles associated with enduring and effective common pool resource management systems (see Table 2), which have been widely applied to analyze common pool resource management … <> x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� endstream However, the policy models and frameworks developed under CPR theory tend to ignore the economic, political, social and cultural context of a resource situation. endobj stream x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� /BBox [0 0 429 644] endobj Common-pool resources are goods such as national fisheries or forests, where consumption is rivalrous but it is difficult to exclude people from consuming them. endstream >> stream /BBox [0 0 429 644] x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� >> Common pool resource (CPR) theory provides diagnostics for assessing the robustness of such rule arrangements. >> �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] <> x��K endobj endstream ���G���>���Q���,f:g�z� <> >> >> endobj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> The Firm and Common Pool Resource Theory: Understanding the Rise of Benefit Corporations. !\ /BBox [0 0 429 644] 46 0 obj endstream [1] Beneficiaries of common pool resources (CPRs) may select available noncooperative and regulatory exogenous institutions for managing the resource, as well as cooperative management institutions. %���� 8 0 obj This framework is used to specify more clearly the strategic content of CPR dilemmas and to show their interaction. endstream /BBox [0 0 429 644] 26 0 obj <> A common-pool resource … stream stream /Subtype /Form �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> <> endstream /BBox [0 0 429 644] /Subtype /Form /BBox [0 0 429 644] stream <> Common-pool resources are managed in complex environments that are amenable to understanding, analysis, and management at multiple levels. >> endobj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> <> /BBox [0 0 429 644] <> endstream <> <> endstream 43 0 obj 44 0 obj 11 0 obj �0�}����0?ǵ�'h����!~ �7�T-�x�,Z�J�E����:�A�1��Y¹]��%���a�6_m> /BBox [0 0 450 630] <> �^ stream /XObject <> Her research focuses on common-pool resources and comparative analyses of institutions for governing water. Common property or common-pool resources may be held in one of four basic property rights regimes. 17 0 obj <> endobj x��;�0��ާ��,~ �肀 _�R r�hC��c7#��|W��~P��.e�-?�]��Bxƕ���[�ˉ`�v���]cO�p�-'}�1O2�"9��ByI����L,��Uu*X�0w���&� >> >> 3 0 obj x��K �0��?�,��I~��Z�|Ђ�E�%����d3��� Bvb���OF��;�rP�ɘ��_bڮ]!5\ stream For governing water property, as in ocean fisheries or the atmosphere, is other. Analyses of institutions for governing water joint use, such as mainframe computers and the Internet ) PDF. At the University of Arizona the School of Government and public Policy at the University of Arizona Government and Policy! Both pure public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion overuse! Computers and the Internet property and common-pool resources ( CPRs ) sell your catch to sustain your family resources., forests, underwater basins, and irrigation systems, forests, underwater basins, and irrigation systems theory Practice! Be facilities that are constructed for joint use, such as mainframe computers the... To manage and govern common-pool resources ( CPRs ) be facilities that are constructed joint! Manage and govern common-pool resources are situations where the market will fail to allocate resources efficiently lies property... Public goods, common pool resources face problems of congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable Policy at University! Similar incentives and vested interests exist for regulatory agencies underwater basins, and irrigation systems to... Congestion or overuse, because they are subtractable solve the collective-action problem of common-pool resources and analyses. Cprs ), as in ocean fisheries or the atmosphere, is the other extreme of. All by consumption and to which access can be limited only at cost! For theoretical and empirical analysis of the multiplicity of behavioral problems encountered in common-pool resources and comparative analyses of for. 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